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Doping - definition:

The current official definition of doping is given based on the World Anti-Doping Code as follows:

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the anti-doping rule violations set forth in Article 2.1 through article 2.8 of the World Anti-Doping Code.



ARTICLE 2: ANTI-DOPING RULE VIOLATIONS

Athletes or other Persons shall be responsible for knowing what constitutes an antidoping
rule violation and the substances and methods which have been included on the Prohibited List.
The following constitute anti-doping rule violations:
2.1. Presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers in an Athletes Sample
2.2. Use or Attempted Use by an Athlete of a Prohibited Substance or a Prohibited

Method
2.3. Refusing or failing without compelling justification to submit to Sample collection after notification as authorized in applicable anti-doping rules, or otherwise evading Sample collection
2.4. Violation of applicable requirements regarding Athlete availability for Out-of-Competition Testing, including failure to file required whereabouts information and missed tests which are declared based on rules which comply with the International Standard for Testing. Any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures within an eighteen-month period as determined by Anti- Doping Organizations with jurisdiction over the Athlete shall constitute an antidoping rule violation
2.5. Tampering or Attempted Tampering with any part of Doping Control
2.6. Possession of Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods
2.7. Trafficking or Attempted Trafficking in any Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method
2.8. Administration or Attempted administration to any Athlete In-Competition of any Prohibited Method or Prohibited Substance, or administration or Attempted administration to any Athlete Out-of-Competition of any Prohibited Method or any Prohibited Substance that is prohibited Out-of-Competition, or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation or any Attempted anti-doping rule violation




The Prohibited List 2009

Source: http://www.wada-ama.org

The World Anti-Doping Code

THE 2009 PROHIBITED LIST INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall bepublished in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the Englishand French versions, the English version shall prevail.

THE 2009 PROHIBITED LIST WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE Valid 1 January 2009

The use of any drug should be limited to medically justified indications. All Prohibited Substances shall be considered as Specified Substances except Substances in classes S1, S2, S.4.4 and S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3.

SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)


PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES:

S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS

Anabolic agents are prohibited.

1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)

a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
1-androstendiol (5-androst-1-ene-3,17-diol ); 1-androstendione (5-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione); bolandiol (19-norandrostenediol); bolasterone; boldenone; boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione); calusterone; clostebol; danazol (17-ethynyl-17-hydroxyandrost-4-eno[2,3-d]isoxazole); dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17-hydroxy-17-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); desoxymethyltestosterone (17-methyl-5-androst-2-en-17-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol (19-nor-17-pregn-4-en-17-ol); fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol (17-hydroxy-17-methyl-5-androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone; methandienone (17-hydroxy-17-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); methandriol; methasterone (2, 17-dimethyl-5-androstane-3-one-17-ol); methyldienolone (17-hydroxy-17-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one); methyl-1-testosterone (17-hydroxy-17-methyl-5-androst-1-en-3-one); methylnortestosterone (17-hydroxy-17-methylestr-4-en-3-one); methyltrienolone (17-hydroxy-17-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); methyltestosterone; mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol; norethandrolone;oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone; prostanozol (17-hydroxy-5-androstano[3,2-c] pyrazole); quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone (17-hydroxy-5-androst-1-en-3-one); tetrahydrogestrinone (18a-homo-pregna-4,9,11-trien-17-ol-3-one); trenbolone and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).

b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously: androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3,17-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17-hydroxy-5-androstan-3-one) ; prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone and the following metabolites and isomers: 5-androstane-3,17-diol; 5-androstane-3,17-diol; 5-androstane-3,17-diol; 5-androstane-3,17-diol; androst-4-ene-3,17-diol; androst-4-ene-3,17-diol; androst-4-ene-3,17-diol; androst-5-ene-3,17-diol; androst-5-ene-3,17-diol; androst-5-ene-3,17-diol; 4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3,17-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3-hydroxy-5-androstan-17-one; 3-hydroxy-5-androstan-17-one; 19-norandrosterone; 19-noretiocholanolone. [Comment to class S1.1b: Where an anabolic androgenic steroid is capable of being produced endogenously, a Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance and an Adverse Analytical Finding will be reported where the concentration of such Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or any other relevant ratio(s) in the Athletes Sample so deviates from the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production. A Sample shall not be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance in any such case where an Athlete proves that the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or the relevant ratio(s) in the Athletes Sample is attributable to a physiological or pathological condition. In all cases, and at any concentration, the Athletes Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and the laboratory will report an Adverse Analytical Finding if, based on any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), the laboratory can show that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin. In such case, no further investigation is necessary.
When a value does not so deviate from the range of values normally found in humans and any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, but if there are indications, such as a comparison to endogenous reference steroid profiles, of a possible Use of a Prohibited Substance, or when a laboratory has reported a T/E ratio greater than four (4) to one (1) and any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation shall be conducted by the relevant Anti-Doping Organization by reviewing the results of any previous test(s) or by conducting subsequent test(s). When such further investigation is required the result shall be reported by the laboratory as atypical and not as adverse. If a laboratory reports, using an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS), that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin, no further investigation is necessary, and the Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance. When an additional reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not been applied, and the minimum of three previous test results are not available, a longitudinal profile of the Athlete shall be established by performing three no-advance notice tests in a period of three months by the relevant Anti-Doping Organization. The result that triggered this longitudinal study shall be reported as atypical. If the longitudinal profile of the Athlete established by the subsequent tests is not physiologically normal, the result shall then be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.

In extremely rare individual cases, boldenone of endogenous origin can be consistently found at very low nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) levels in urine. When such a very low concentration of boldenone is reportedby a laboratory and the application of any reliable analytical method (e.g. IRMS) has not determined the exogenous origin of the substance, further investigation may be conducted by subsequent test(s).
For 19-norandrosterone, an Adverse Analytical Finding reported by a laboratory is considered to be scientific and valid proof of exogenous origin of the Prohibited Substance. In such case, no further investigation is necessary. Should an Athlete fail to cooperate in the investigations, the Athletes Sample shall be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance.]

2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to: Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone, zeranol, zilpaterol. For purposes of this section: * exogenous refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally. ** endogenous refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally.






S2. HORMONES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES

The following substances and their releasing factors, are prohibited:

1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (e.g. erythropoietin (EPO), darbepoietin (dEPO), hematide);
2. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factors (e.g. IGF-1), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs);
3. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in males; 4. Insulins;
5. Corticotrophins;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).

[Comment to class S2: Unless the Athlete can demonstrate that the concentration was due to a physiological or pathological condition, a Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance (as listed above) where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites and/or relevant ratios or markers in the Athletes Sample satisfies positivity criteria established by WADA or otherwise so exceeds the range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production. If a laboratory reports, using a reliable analytical method, that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin, the Sample will be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance and shall be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.]


S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS

All beta-2 agonists including their D- and L-isomers are prohibited. Therefore, formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline when administered by inhalation also require a Therapeutic Use Exemption in accordance with the relevant section of the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions.
Despite the granting of a Therapeutic Use Exemption, the presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of a therapeutic dose of inhaled salbutamol.




S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS

The following classes are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to: anastrozole, letrozole, aminoglutethimide, exemestane, formestane, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including but not limited to: myostatin inhibitors.


S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS

Masking agents are prohibited. They include:
Diuretics, probenecid, plasma expanders (e.g. intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol) and other substances with similar biological effect(s).

Diuretics include:
Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone, thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), triamterene, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) (except drosperinone and topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).

[Comment to class S5:
A Therapeutic Use Exemption is not valid if an Athletes urine contains a diuretic in association with threshold or sub-threshold levels of an exogenous Prohibited Substance(s).]



PROHIBITED METHODS


M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER

The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin. 2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).


M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION

1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Controls is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or alteration.

2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except in the management of surgical procedures, medical emergencies or clinical investigations.


M3. GENE DOPING

The transfer of cells or genetic elements or the use of cells, genetic elements or pharmacological agents to modulating expression of endogenous genes having the capacity to enhance athletic performance, is prohibited. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPAR-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.


SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION

In addition to the categories S1 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited in competition:



PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES


S6. STIMULANTS

All stimulants (including both their D- & L- optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2009 Monitoring Program*.

Stimulants include:
a: Non Specified Stimulants:
Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine; etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine; fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; methamphetamine(D-); methylenedioxyamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine; p-methylamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine; phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prolintane.

A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance. b: Specified Stimulants (examples):

Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamphetamine; meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). * The following substances included in the 2009 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, pseudoephedrine, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.

** Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.

*** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.

**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.



S7. NARCOTICS

The following narcotics are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.


S8. CANNABINOIDS

Cannabinoids (e.g. hashish, marijuana) are prohibited.


S9. GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS

All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes.
In accordance with the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions, a declaration of use must be completed by the Athlete for glucocorticosteroids administered by intraarticular, periarticular, peritendinous, epidural, intradermal and inhalation routes, except as noted below.
Topical preparations when used for auricular, buccal, dermatological (including iontophoresis/phonophoresis), gingival, nasal, ophthalmic and perianal disorders are not prohibited and neither require a Therapeutic Use Exemption nor a declaration of use.




SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS


P1. ALCOHOL

Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L.
Aeronautic (FAI)
Archery (FITA, IPC)
Automobile (FIA)
Boules (IPC bowls)
Karate (WKF)
Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting
Motorcycling (FIM)
Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)
Powerboating (UIM)


P2. BETA-BLOCKERS

Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
Aeronautic (FAI)
Archery (FITA, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
Automobile (FIA)
Billiards and Snooker (WCBS)
Bobsleigh (FIBT)
Boules (CMSB, IPC bowls)
Bridge (FMB)
Curling (WCF)
Golf (IGF)
p Gymnastics (FIG)
Motorcycling (FIM)
Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting
Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)
Powerboating (UIM)
Sailing (ISAF) for match race helms only
Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air
Wrestling (FILA) Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following: Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.


The Prohibited List 2009 20 September 2008 Source: http://www.wada-ama.org






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